Soul of the Mediterranean culture in Roman times found in the ruins of Hippo Regius in Algeria

Algeria is home to 36 million people, but occupies almost one million square miles, by far the largest nation in all of Africa, four times the size of Texas. It is a sparsely populated country, especially outside the main cities. Many Algerians are concentrated in large urban areas such as Algiers, which has a population close to four million.
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So Algeria is primarily a land of vast deserts, a Sahara nation that offers views from cities, large tracts of land with few people but lots of sky. The coast is wonderfully fertile and well watered, a magnificent country that was once the barn of ancient Rome.
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In many ways, it has the characteristics that would be instantly familiar to Californians who cultivate that fertile state: a plain towards the sea that leads inland to a wall of mountains that tend to keep the plain well retained by blocking ocean moisture so that Don’t travel over the mountains. . This is the same geo-climatological configuration along the southern Mediterranean coast and the California coast.
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The great Christian philosopher Saint Augustine was bishop of Hippo Regius, an ancient city whose modern name is Annaba, Algeria. The ruins of Hippo Regius bring me back year after year, decade after decade. I feel, somehow, that the soul of the Mediterranean is hidden among these ancient blocks of stone.
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They remember Rome when it entered the Christian era and they are among the best in all of North Africa, so it deserves a special trip. We can see why this land settled three thousand years ago with rich and undulating mounds covered with flowers, olive groves, rosemary beds, the home of the shepherds and their flocks, whose days are animated with the singing of birds.
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At the height of its activity a couple of millennia ago, the city of Hippo was considered part of Roman Africa, a kind of vassal of the great city of Carthage in present-day Tunisia. Today, Hippo Regius is part of Algeria, although not far from the border with Tunisia. St. Augustine was ordained a priest there in 391. He became bishop coadjutor in 395, then bishop a few years later, a position he held for almost three decades until his death in 430.
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The best way to see the ancient city is to approach it from the seafront, which today has moved a thousand feet away from where it used to be when the Romans stepped on these beaches and roads.
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Walk from the Mediterranean Sea down the small hill to the well-preserved Hippo Museum before touring the ruins, as the exhibits there will help put what you see in the right context, an investment worth doing. For example, the ground floor contains a good collection of sculptures in the Salle des Bustes , including a statute of Emperor Vespasian that was found in the forum. A special gift for me is a very strange armor, almost seven feet high, covered with a red cloak like blood. On the wall there is a meticulously detailed mosaic of four sea nymphs or water spirits.
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There is another collection of fine mosaics in the next room, my favorite is a hunting game from the time of St. Augustine in which lions, leopards and antelopes are chased in a trap.
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We easily forget that in those days the lions were not limited to Kenya and East Africa. They were common as far north as Hippo Regius. It was only the Mediterranean Sea that prevented the lions from wandering around Sicily and Italy. A third mosaic scene, this one of fishermen bringing home their catch, includes what I consider equivalent to an old postcard that shows Hippo Regius as it should have appeared two thousand years ago.
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The ruins of the ancient city occupy many acres of land. You will see that the best houses and the best residential area of ​​the city, in those days as in a modern city, were right on the ocean, where the sea breeze swept its open courtyards. What remains of half a dozen Roman villas of the well-to-do is evident here, their courtyards are marked by columns, some of the walls and floors still visible.
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Two houses especially worth seeing are the Villa del Laberinto and the Villa del Procurador, which I consider to be the most impressive examples of how the rich organized their private homes. Beyond these oceanfront villas, if you continue passing the southern baths where you will reach the edge of the Christian neighborhood and the 150-foot contour of the great basilica of the early Christian period where Augustine probably occupied the court as a bishop. The mosaics on the floor are quite beautiful.
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No modern visitor from Algeria should miss the opportunity to visit Hippo Regius and pay tribute to this vision of the past.


Death Valley in bloom

While Death Valley blatantly exposes its geology, it is shy in revealing its flora, both thanks to its average of 2 inches (5 cm) of rain per year. Death Valley is a land of extremes. In December, the air temperature can be 85 degrees F (29 degrees C) in Badwater, which is about 280 feet (85 meters) below sea level. And yet, 20 miles (32 km) away, Telescope Peak, 11,049 feet (3368 meters) above sea level: the highest point in the park can be hit by a snowstorm. In fact, Death Valley is the lowest, hottest and other places in North America.
Despite this dryness, this park is home to 1,000 species of plants, including 23 species that grow nowhere else. A couple of factors work in favor of Death Valley with respect to plant diversity. First is its wide range of elevations, which makes it attractive for a wide range of plant types.
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That change in elevation from Badwater to Telescope Peak is twice the change in elevation of the Grand Canyon. The other factor is that the park is so big. With 3.3 million acres (approximately 1.3 million hectares), it is 1-½ times the size of the state of Delaware.
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The typically dry environment of Death Valley is a product of the Sierra Nevada mountains to the west. When storms arrive from the Pacific through California, they generally travel from west to east. These mountains west of Death Valley squeeze most of the moisture from the clouds. After the storms pass through the Mount Whitney area, the western slopes of the Panamint Mountains squeeze even more moisture. On the east side of the Panamint Mountains, where Death Valley is located, the now dry air warms as it descends into Death Valley. This heating causes any moisture that reaches the ground to evaporate quickly and adds to the high temperatures of the Valley. Some estimates have an annual Death Valley evaporation rate of around 150 inches (381 cm), which means that a lake approximately 12 feet (3.7 meters) deep would dry in a year.
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Like the rest of California, Death Valley has a distinct winter rainy season and a dry summer season. This is known as the Mediterranean climate (similar to southern Italy, Greece and Spain, and the North African coast). And how rainy the winters of California can be deeply affected by a phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean called El Niño. This is when a large portion of the ocean is warmer than average, which leads to a higher than normal evaporation and, in turn, to a higher than normal rainfall in California. While that can cause flooding and landslides, it can also lead to spectacular displays of wildflowers in the Death Valley that park rangers call “superbloom.”

Historically, the winter of 1998 brought 5 inches (12.5 cm) of rain to Death Valley, which generally receives about 2 inches (5 cm) of rain in a year. Wild flowers that do not bloom every year appeared and the most typical were particularly profuse. It became known as the “flourishing of the century” and became national television news. Death Valley had many more visitors that year than usual. In fact, the 1999 calendar year has the highest record of Death Valley visits with more than 1.2 million.

How good a flowering season will be depends not only on the amount of moisture that the rainy season brings, but also on how nature distributes that moisture. The 1998 season was excellent, not only because it rained more, but also because the rain spread over time. The other determining factors for a good flowering season are sufficiently hot temperatures, but not too hot, and the lack of dry winds.

When you go, make your first stop at the Furnace Creek Visitor Center, along State Route 190, where you can ask the rangers how well and where the wild flowers bloom. Since the visitor center is close to half of this huge park, you probably already have a good idea for when you arrive. The visitor center offers several field guides to help you identify desert wildflowers. A garden full of native vegetation in the front can help you see what flowers are blooming and how they look before embarking on your own search.

You can also learn how plants have adapted to this hostile environment. First, most species are annual, or more specifically, ephemeral ephemeral. They escape the dryness of Death Valley only when they grow and bloom when there is enough moisture available. They spend the rest of the year as seeds, until the humidity returns.

Second, the common creosote bush illustrates another desert adaptation. Less smaller leaves grow that have less surface area to lose moisture, but then cover the leaves you have with a waxy substance to further reduce moisture loss.

The cactus shows a third adaptation to desiccation, whose leaves have become thorns to deflect the sun’s rays and the mouths of thirsty and marauding animals. Photosynthesis takes place in the pads of a cactus, not in its “leaves.”

Furnace Creek Village would be a good base camp for your explorations. For motorhome travelers, connections are available here, as well as at Panamint Springs, a private hotel complex on the western edge of the park, and at Stovepipe Wells Village, a more centrally located motel complex north of Furnace Creek.

The flowering season in Death Valley begins at the lowest elevations at the southern end of the park. It begins in mid-February and continues until mid-April. The lowest elevations are the salt flats of the Badwater Basin, which was filled by Lake Manly 650 feet (198 meters) deep during the last Ice Age, but a warmer climate dried it. Salinas do not admit plants, but the adjacent valley floor and alluvial fans do. Alluvial fans are triangular deposits that wash from canyons and accumulate for eons. They are the desert version of a river delta.

The best areas to see this early flowering are near the visitor center along State Route 190 around the Furnace Creek Inn; in Jubilee Pass on State Route 178 at the southern end of the park; and on Daylight Pass, along State Route 374 that connects with Beatty, Nevada. Drive south from Furnace Creek on State Route 178, observing the color between the alluvial fans on your left and in the valley on your right. For a year of El Niño, fans both north and south of Furnace Creek turn a distinctive yellow of desert sunflower flowers (scientific name Gerea canescens ) Growing with desert sunflowers in alluvial fans is an interesting whitish flower commonly called gravel ghost ( Atrichoseris platyphylla ), although our field guides gave it the pedestrian name of tobacco grass. Its common name comes from the fact that its hirsute stems can give these flowers a disembodied appearance while floating on gravel.

Perhaps the most popular desert flower of all in Death Valley is the Desert Five-Spot. Its pinkish-purple petals form a balloon around a source of stamens. Each petal has a burgundy stain inside. We found them throughout Artist & # 39; s Drive, just south of Golden Canyon, and at the southern end of the park at the ruins of Ashford Mill and Jubilee Pass.

Don’t miss the other attractions near Furnace Creek. At the Borax Museum, learn about the history of the mineral for which Death Valley is most famous. The museum focuses on borax underground mining. It also contains exhibits of the famous teams of 20 mules that took borax from Death Valley. To get to know that time, visit the ruins of Harmony Borax Works, just north of the Furnace Creek camp. When you are ready to return to the main road, be sure to exit through Mustard Canyon, a one-way trip on small hills of yellow minerals.

From the beginning of April to the beginning of May, flowering progresses north and upward from 2,000 to 4,000 feet. The Mesquite Springs camp can be your base of operations at the northern end of Death Valley.

A pleasant walk at any time, especially when flowers bloom, is around the Ubehebe crater. The crater measures 490 feet deep (159 meters) and 2,400 feet (732 meters) in diameter. It was created by a tremendous explosion of steam heated by magma that dispersed debris for miles around. You can walk to the bottom of the crater along a path that basically goes down. A trail west of the parking lot leads around the crater and nearby smaller craters. We found a good variety of flowers, including the golden desert poppy, and some especially good specimens of desert trumpet. This member of the buckwheat family has an inflated upper stem, hence its scientific name, Eriogonum inflatum .

From a purely floral perspective, the most impressive sight we saw during our visit was at Scotty Castle, at a height of 3,000 feet (914 meters). The unfinished pool in front of this mansion was carpeted with golden evening primrose.

Scotty’s castle is named after Walter Scott, better known as Death Valley Scotty. He was a seeker and show pilot of the Wild West who spread rumors of a gold mine in Death Valley. He managed to interest Albert M. Johnson, a Chicago millionaire, to invest in his claim. When Johnson came to see the mythical mine, the dry air of the valley improved his respiratory ailment, and decided that he liked the area, gold mine or not.

Scott and Johnson became friends. Beginning in the late 1920s at the suggestion of Johnson’s wife, who also visited the area, they built a shelter in Grapevine Canyon called Death Valley Ranch. They chose the location due to the abundant spring water available there. The mansion cost more than $ 2 million but was never completed. The Park Service offers life history tours scheduled regularly throughout the home. Scotty Castle was flooded by a flash flood in 2015 and will not be open to the public until 2019.

The end of April at the beginning of June marks the last flowering period of Death Valley. These flowers can be found in areas of more than 4,000 feet (1219 meters), in the Panamint Mountains, the highest places in the park. At this time of the year, the weather is more comfortable in the mountains anyway, since valley temperatures can reach 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38 Celsius), and average 120 degrees Fahrenheit (49 Celsius) in summer.

Those in a four-wheel drive vehicle with ground clearance can extend their search for wildflowers to the many Death Valley crossing roads. Echo Canyon, from State Route 190 two miles southeast of Furnace Creek, and Cottonwood-Marble Canyon Road, which starts next to Stovepipe Wells, offer especially good wildflower displays early in the season. Greenwater Valley Road is a fun crossing road that is almost 30 miles (49 km) long; It connects the Dante vision area with State Route 178 near the Salsberry Pass.

Death Valley has five dunes within its limits. Take the road at the north end to Eureka Dunes to have the opportunity to see the highest sand dunes in the state and the second highest in North America. The dunes also house several unusual species of plants, including evening primrose Eureka Dunes. The most famous and visited dunes of Death Valley, since they are right next to the road and Stovepipe Wells, are the sand dunes of Mesquite Flats, often called the dunes of Death Valley. These dunes were used in the opening sequence of the old television series “Kung Fu,” starring David Carradine.

While it is true that any above-average rainy season can bring its share of problems, it surely brings its share of blessings in the form of a profusion of wild flowers. Seeing the normally scarce wild flowers of Death Valley that bloom between rocks and mineral deposits is special every year, but seeing it during a superbloom is very special. Be sure to check the alluvial fans and canyons, and head to the mountains. You will be rewarded with a colorful desert in bloom: the yellow of the sunflowers of the desert, the gold of the desert and the golden poppies; the white of the gravel ghosts and the spiny poppy; the red of the California hedgehog and fuchsia cactus; and the purple of phacelia and desert of five points.

Violations of the California Labor Code cause extensive damage through the Private Attorney General's Law [PAGA]

A fictitious account of violations of the labor code

Disclaimer : This story is completely fictional without reference to any particular person, company or employee. Any resemblance or name that approximates a real individual or company is pure coincidence.

A backstory of multiple violations of the Labor Code that lead to sanctions.

Melinda worked for Busy-Body Industries to clean houses. Busy-Body had a written employment agreement with Melinda and another 2,000 home cleaning people in California. The agreement stipulated that all Busy-Body employees confirmed their appointments the day before by calling customers at a time delivered to the employee at the beginning of the week. Employees should also call just before and after each cleaning. Busy-Body required its employees to have mobile phones and subscribe for unlimited minutes through the wireless service provider of their choice. Busy-Body paid a standard of $ 2.00 per day to each employee for what Busy-Body designated as mobile phone expenses.

Melinda and all other cleaning employees used their mobile phones at least six times a day for Busy-Body related businesses. Melinda's unlimited monthly mobile phone service costs $ 130.00 per month. Using your phone for company calls did not increase your bill.

Busy-Body also demanded that its employees buy their cleaning supplies, and paid them a standard of 40.00 per month as an established reimbursement based on a historical average of 12 months for their 2000 employees. However, some employees worked in areas where the square footage of a luxury home required more cleaning agents than people who cleaned middle class neighborhoods.

Busy-Body collected the cleaning person's tip as part of the prepaid prices and charged the employee a fee of $ 5.00 per transaction for collecting tips. Employees were not allowed to receive tips directly from customers. Busy-Body used this method to track tips in order to make individual tax withholdings and contributions for each employee.

Busy-Body also required that each of its employees wash and press their uniforms. Employees who do not maintain dress codes. As proof that the uniforms were adequately clean and pressed, Busy-Body required employees to scan and deliver a separate cleaning bill each week, but did not reimburse these expenses. An employee who did not provide proof of cleaning costs was fined $ 15.00 for "failed inspection."

In addition, Busy-Body employees must pay their own vacuum cleaners and spare bags. They are allowed to use the vacuum cleaners for personal use. Busy-Body considers that the vacuum cleaner is a tool of the trade, similar to the tools that a carpenter owns and uses.

A cleaning person when he was sent left his house to go directly to his first appointment of the day. There was no Busy-Body "home office" that cleaning people led to or from their designated calls. The corporate office of Busy-Body is located in Tulsa, Oklahoma, without offices in other parts of the country. Once a month, employees had to attend a teleconference that provided training, company news updates and company comments on customer demands, expectations and levels of satisfaction. Employees were expected to attend these conferences after their regular work hours while they were at home computers, usually after 6:00 p.m. M. They were not compensated for this time, nor for the telephone and Internet expenses incurred as part of these monthly meetings.

When Melinda questioned the Company's practice of receiving a fine for the "failed inspection" fee when cleaning and pressing her uniforms at home at her own time, her manager told her, and throughout the conference, that the cleaning service at Dry was the only way the company could track that each employee presented the "brand" of the company.

"Then we should be paid for dry cleaning expenses," Melinda said.

"You paid for the uniforms and you can use them for personal use. It is not a company expense," his manager had told him during the conference call.

"Melinda was upset with this answer, and she didn't back down: but you chose the clothes and she has our company logo on the shirts."

"The logo is very attractive," their boss told them. You should be proud to use it for personal use.

A week after her comment, Melinda's employer called her to tell her that her services were no longer necessary and to return her company's documents and uniform. Melinda pressed to get an answer as to why she was being fired.

"I have never been written. All my clients love me. This is not fair."

"You are an employee at will," the Director of Human Resources told him during the conference call. "We don't have to have a reason."


Violation of the California Labor Code: personal cell phone use for business in an unlimited plan

This problem has been resolved in California by Cochran's decision. The employer cannot defend itself on the grounds that it does not cost the employee more to use the telephone. The court shifted the focus towards the benefit received by the employer and demanded an objective investigation into the probable average proportion of the use of personal use time to the employer. The employer owed the employees a percentage reimbursement of personal expenses incurred by the employer's business.

So, the question is whether $ 2.00 per day for each employee is a fair and reasonable estimate of the probable proportion of personal to commercial use. An employer in California is allowed to use an optional method to estimate costs instead of paying the exact dollar amount based on individual expense reports, but there should be a close approximation based on evidence of actual costs. An employer may want to follow this optional approach due to the difficulty and time associated with individual reports.

In this case, if the unlimited plan costs $ 80.00 per month, and employees use their personal plans between 30% and 50% of the time for business, and a random verification of business calls in the phone records supports that range, then 40% could be a reasonable and fair reimbursement, since any employee in a month could use the phone more or less than the midpoint.

The typical use of Melinda is six times a day, commercial use in 10 minutes each or 60 minutes per day. She uses the phone for personal reasons approximately 10 times a day at 20 minutes each or 200 minutes. The business to personal ratio is 60: 200 or 30%. With a flat rate of $ 130.00, you should receive a refund of $ 39.00 per month. $ 2.00 per month is clearly inappropriate.

Violation of the California Labor Code: Cleaning supplies and equipment.

Busy-Body pays a standard reimbursement rate of $ 40.00 per month for cleaning items based on a historical average of 12 months for its 2000 employees. Is this formula compatible with the evidence that shows that individual employees are being adequately compensated?

The cleaning cost seems reasonable depending on the depth of the data for 12 months, but Busy-Body may need to subclassify its employees in the "large home" neighborhood group and the "moderate home" group, since each set of Homes will do it. It has its own "cost of supplies." The more refined and specific the formula, the more likely it is to be defended as a legally sufficient approximation of the actual costs.

Vacuums are tools owned by employees who retain them in the possession of their staff and are also free to use them for personal purposes. They are probably not refundable expenses. But what about the replacement bags and belts related to wear for the benefit of the employer? These costs are possibly reimbursable because the volume of use of business bags is much greater than for personal use. Busy-Body employees, for example, routinely use and dispose of at least one bag for household cleaning. Each employee cleans between 1 or 2 homes per day, five days a week. Busy-Body could keep holding the bag for unreimbursed expenses due to 2000 employees, including fines and attorneys' fees.

Violation of the California Labor Code: Impose costs to collect tip revenue

Passing this cost to the employee would be illegal. In California, tips belong exclusively to the employee. Companies usually collect and distribute these tips. Most customers add the tip not as a separate payment to the employee, but as a component of the card's general authorized charge. Tip collection and administration is a business cost that is absorbed without compensation for the employee. In addition, Busy-Body is required by law to treat tip revenues such as regular wages and subject to withholding of UI, ETT, SDI and PIT. Therefore, Busy-Body must include deductions in its breakdown of the paycheck. This breakdown would include a category of "tip revenue", or a similar wording. If not reported, distributed and retained, everyone has taxes and penalties from the California Labor Code for noncompliance.

Violation of the California Labor Code: Work clothes Laundry expenses

California employers who require their California employees to wear exclusive clothing from the employer's brand based on features such as color, style, design or logo must pay the costs to obtain and maintain work-related clothing. If the employee advances the cost, the cost must be reimbursed immediately.

In California, the employee must be reimbursed for uniform cleaning and maintenance other than simple household laundry. If the employee is required to spend time at home to meet the employer's specific care requirements, such as ironing, the "fair value of time" used can be paid as an "allowance" for additional payment. If the employee is required to incur external laundry and ironing services, as could be the case with a dry cleaner, the actual employee expense must be reimbursed.

Busy-Body employees are required to wear clothes that have the company logo and pay a "fine" if the clothing is verified as clean and pressured by a dry cleaner. Busy-Body must reimburse these costs. In addition, imposing a "fine" for noncompliance is an undue deduction of wages not related to the intentional or grossly negligent damage of an employee to company property. The fine works as a "chargeback" against wages earned in violation of Labor Code Sec. 221.

Violation of the California Labor Code: Travel and travel expenses

Busy-Body employees do not have a "base of operations", that is, no place where they report on a predictable way to work, such as a preparation area or corporate office. Instead, their schedule takes them from their private homes to a scheduled customer location, often different each work day. The usual rule is that travel expenses are not refundable travel expenses, but Busy-Body employees do not have "travel" from home to the first place of work. Therefore, all your work-related driving expenses are refundable. To reinforce this conclusion, the Busy-Body corporate office is out of state and has no satellite offices.

There are 2000 Busy-Body employees across the country, each with a different set of distances actually traveled. Busy-Body must reimburse actual individual travel expenses, from portal to portal, for each employee based on proof of expenses presented. California jurisprudence recently allowed employers the option to pay a standard travel expense payment without taking into account specific registered expenses, but only if the formula has a rational and close relationship with actual expenses. Most companies use the IRS miles reimbursement rate in force as an acceptable rate to cover fuel, insurance and maintenance. This rate, along with data showing the average travel range in various regions of the country (which require Busy-Body to subclassify its employees) could satisfy California law and reduce employer administrative costs.

Melinda's case for illegal termination – Retaliation

Melinda is an employee "at will", but that state is irrelevant to the probable reason for her dismissal in this case. She had a good work history. His first friction with Busy-Body was when he questioned the convenience of washing uniforms required by Busy-Body. She was fired a week later without any explanation. The dismissal was illegal because Melinda protested a subject covered as a "fundamental right" in California: the payment of wages and expenses. California allows this "cause of action" to be heard by a jury if Melinda reasonably believes the violation of the law occurred, and somehow complained to the employer about the illegal practice. The short time between the complaint and the dismissal, along with his good work history, is strong circumstantial evidence that Busy-Body's motive was to punish or silence Melinda.

Strength in numbers: California Private Attorney General's Law (PAGA).

California has a unique law that designates private attorneys to process cases on behalf of the Department of Labor Relations, Labor and Workforce Development Agency of the State of California. This law is labeled California Private Attorney General's Law (PAGA).

PAY is so powerful because it provides an application power that was almost completely lacking due to the agency's limited resources. This lack of resources, and the widespread scope of the abuses, led the California legislature to basically allow private attorneys to be "Attorney Generals" for the good of the public. A powerful incentive of the law is that these private attorneys can recover employer sanctions and recover attorney fees incurred in prosecuting the case. The penalties recovered are divided between the State and the employees.

But one aspect of the case, unlike a state action, is that an employee files the lawsuit on behalf of several other employees who are invited to join the lawsuit. The corpus of recovered money is considered claimed by the employees once the State obtains its share. Many PAGA cases will be resolved before the trial, and the State is often willing to commit its share of the total recovery to less than 75% legal to facilitate the agreement.

The Private Attorney General must notify the Agency for Workforce Development and the Workforce ("LWDA") in detail about the nature of the proposed civil action, and the employer must be notified prior to trial with the opportunity to correct the alleged violations. . If the LWDA refuses to sue for the matter, and the employer does not present a timely "cure" for violations or conditions, then the individual employee represented by a private attorney may proceed on behalf of the State of California and the employees to collect sanctions . Section 2699 of the Labor Code defines a considerable fine: for most employers, the fine is $ 200.00 for each injured employee for each pay period in which a violation occurred. There is a statute of limitations of one year from the date of the last violation in a series to collect penalties. 26 payment periods multiplied by $ 200 = $ 5,000 per year per employee X 2000 employees = $ 10,400,000.00.

Technical problems related to a PAY case.

The accused employers and the courts have raised multiple questions about the interpretation and future of PAGA. Some of the most pressing:

  1. Does PAY have to comply with the class certification requirements applicable to the standard class action case?
  2. Can Courts requires that a PAGA employee named in the action go to arbitration to determine the merits of his individual action to determine if he is a typical representative of the issues that will be addressed in the case of PAGA. (Undecided by an appellate court, but the courts of first instance, in fact, "handle" PAY cases in this way).
  3. How much discovery is required at what stage of a PAGA case for a court to determine the scope of the PAGA claims? (It seems that the courts follow the trend initiated in motions for class action certification to include evidence obtained in an individual arbitration procedure to determine the probable merits of the claims, but an appeal decision on this issue has not yet been published. ). The individual claim will be expedited to meet the burden of proving that claim in Arbitration.
  4. What is the effect of the decision of the 2015 California Supreme Court (Valencia) on the future of PAGA cases? If the Federal Arbitration Act applies to require an individual to arbitrate their individual claim and waive participation in a class action lawsuit, does that same preference by federal law apply to a PAGA case? The employees do not argue: it is the State of California, and not the employee, who is represented by the "Private Attorney General."
  5. What is the PAGA damage test standard when each employee may have suffered damages somewhat differently, but within a probable range of minimum to maximum loss? The answer has been given in the "Duran" case. Statistical evidence is admissible to arrive at a probable acceptable amount of damages despite individual employee variations if the probable number is reached by an expert following generally accepted statistical methods with adequate sampling. Whatever the method adopted by the Court, it must allow the Respondent a fair opportunity to attack the methods used or the sampling that employees trust.


Busy Body will have a great time in court. The list of their violations of employee rights is long: unpaid mobile phone expenses; erroneous evaluation of employee fines to reduce salary payments, not to reimburse uniform laundry costs, expenses not paid for the supplies needed to do the job; unpaid travel expenses, do not deduct and itemize tips and taxes withheld; Unpaid work hours for mandatory training. Each of these violations entails penalties established by law, and if fully assessed against Busy-Body, it will result in tens of millions of dollars in damages if the Court allows the case to proceed as a PAY case, or if the case qualifies as an unrestricted class action by an arbitration agreement. The freedom to proceed with a PAGA case is under attack by the employers' community. To the extent that the courts are inclined to impose class action case management tools in a PAGA case, the freedom to proceed subject only to the PAGA notification requirements seems to be currently at risk. Still, Melinda and Busy-Body can have a complex and expensive battle that will end up with millions paid or lost. Melinda herself will proceed in her own case for unjustified dismissal due to reprisals when she opposed some of these illegal practices.

Impressive cities in the US UU. To take a stay

Rest and recreation do not always involve traveling to the other side of the world. While the idea sounds very tempting, there are times when you just need to take a short break from the hustle and bustle of the city. Nor does it have to be a remote place: a brief and temporary change of the environment will suffice.

Have you ever had a stay? The United States is full of hundreds of vacation-friendly cities. We have gathered some of our favorites to help you choose the destination where you can spend 3 to 5 days to restart, relax and rejuvenate.

The Vegas, Nevada. Do we need to say more? A few nights in the city of sin is definitely one of the best ways to have a stay. They have some of the luxury hotels in the world. If your idea of ​​a stay at home is mainly to receive a massage, mark the room service to eat or just stay, then you are in the right place. However, if you have something else in mind, like trying your luck at the casino, Las Vegas will surely not disappoint you!

Tampa, Florida For most people, Tampa vacations mean sunbathing and going to the beach. That is a good way to spend a few days in the city because the beaches of Tampa are some of the best that the United States has to offer. Not in the mood to swim or sunbathe? That's perfectly fine because it just means you have more time to try the amazing restaurants in Tampa. Most of them are in Tampa Bay, so if you want to eat very well, we recommend you visit the bay at your first stop.

Portland, Oregon If you want the whole package of food, fun, rest and recreation, Portland, Oregon is definitely a good option. Find culinary gems in the city's food carts, exercise on your legs and travel your bike-friendly path (while you're on it, go through some of the city's funky neighborhoods), or reconnect with nature and walk through nature. Some of the iconic Oregon trails. However, a fair warning if you have future plans to stay in Oregon: prepare to fall in love with the city where you really want to move!

Birmingham, Alabama One of the best reasons why Birmingham is one of the best places to stay is because it is so discreet that it is easy to combine. For example, you can attend one of the free exercise classes at Railroad Park like a real place. There are also many corners around the city that could be a perfect place to catch up on your reading list while having a cup of coffee from Birmingham.

Whatever city you will be staying in, you will surely find a luxury hotel that suits your needs and feels right at home. Channel your inner tourist and don't waste a moment to refresh and recharge!

Exploring the dazzling cosmopolitan

About Los Angeles and Miami

Popular as LA, Los Angeles is an expanding city in southern California, famous for being the center of the nation's film and television industry. Meaning "Los Angeles" in Spanish, Los Angeles is the second largest city in the country after New York City, the most populous city in the state of California and the seat of Los Angeles County. The inhabitants of the city are known as angels. It has been ranked sixth in the Global Cities Index and in the Ninth Global Economic Power Index.

Lush beaches, stunning architecture and lovely vegetation are some of the characteristics of the most vibrant city in the state of Florida, Miami. It is the main, central and most populous city in the Miami metropolitan area, and the most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States after Washington, DC Miami has been classified as Alpha – World City in the World Cities Study Group & # 39; s inventory. In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States in terms of finance, commerce, culture, entertainment, fashion, education and other sectors. In 2008, Forbes magazine classified Miami as "the cleanest city in America." Miami is known as the "Capital of Latin America" ​​and is the second largest city in the United States with a Spanish-speaking majority.


Both the sprawling cities of Los Angeles and Miami boast so many tourist attractions that almost everyone can find something to savor.

In Los Angeles, the Getty Center, the Griffith Observatory, the Universal Hollywood Studios, the California Science Center, the Nethercutt Collection, the Staples Center, the Griffith Park, the Santa Monica Bay, the battleship USS Iowa BB-61, The Petersen Automotive Museum, La Brea Tar wells and museum, The Broad, The Grove, Runyon Canyon Park, Dodger Stadium, Madame Tussauds Hollywood, Venice Canals Walkway, Bradbury Building, Pierce Brothers Westwood Village Memorial Park, Hollywood Bowl Museum, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), The Grammy Museum and Union Station are some of the main points of interest you can explore.

In Miami, you can discover some of the most enriching places like American Airlines Arena, Vizcaya Museum and Gardens, Zoological Wildlife Foundation, Wynwood Walls, Metromover, Zoo Miami, Dolphin Mall, Wynwood, Marlins Park, Wynwood Art Walk, Bayside Marketplace, Bayfront Park , Perez Art Museum Miami, Miami Trolley, Coconut Grove, Miami Children & # 39; s Museum, Jungle Island, Little Havana, The Falls Shopping Center, Deering Estate, Monkey Jungle, Calle Ocho, Freedom Tower and Tropical Park.

Best time to visit

The best times to visit Los Angeles are from March to May or from September to November, when the air is more breathable and the crowds are less oppressive. The average temperatures during these times remain in the 60s or 70s, which makes walking and visiting outdoor attractions much more comfortable.

The best time to visit Miami is between March and May, when the sun shines with temperatures between 70 and 80 degrees during the day. In addition to the splendid weather, a spring visit allows you to avoid maximum winter rates.

Main airport

Los Angeles International Airport (IATA: LAX) and Miami International Airport (IATA: MIA) are the main airports they serve, respectively. Flights to Los Angeles and Flights to Miami can be found throughout the year.

The best travel tips for your dream vacation

It is not uncommon to hear about holidays that have gone terribly wrong. However, the bottom line is that the nightmare probably wouldn't have happened with good planning. If you want to avoid the problems of bad vacation planning, read on for some excellent advice. Consider the expiration date of your passport. Some countries have very specific rules regarding passports, even when they expire. Depending on the expiration date of your passport, a country may not allow you to visit it. These times can be three or six months, or even eight months to a year. Some travel websites have electronic tracking options that you can use. This will provide you with the most economical and current travel methods. Alerts will be sent to you by email if a flight in which you have shown interest lowers the price and can now be purchased at a lower rate. If you have already booked a flight, you will also receive an email alert if the ticket price has dropped.

TIP! If you are going to cruise, pack a gearbox and store your valuables. Cruises often have many thieves on board and you don't want to risk losing something important to you.

Use a list to help you pack your essentials. Prepare a list of things to take with you. You can start doing this a couple of months, but it should end about a week before your trip. This can help you especially if you are in a hurry to pack, as it will prevent you from forgetting things or including unnecessary items. You don't always have to travel far to experience a great day trip or a weekend getaway. There are probably places you have not enjoyed in your home state or in others. Staying local allows you to save money while benefiting your own local economy. The perfect getaway could be just around the corner. If you bring them, you can connect your laptop to your room TV. You can take advantage of several movies in real time instead of paying expensive rentals directly from the hotel.

TIP! Going on a cruise can be an attractive way to travel for those who wish to visit many different places. They can do it without having to drive themselves or have the trouble of different planes and / or trains.

Sleeping pills can help you overcome red eyes. This can help you sleep in a situation where many feel uncomfortable, on board an airplane. If you have trouble sleeping while flying, feel free to take a sleeping pill shortly before your flight to help you relax and possibly take a nap during the trip. Do not take the medication before leaving in case there are delays or problems with the plane. Always plan ahead when traveling by plane. Simply getting to the airport can be difficult to do quickly, especially if you travel through an important city during peak hours. Have your bags packed well in advance. You need to make all your travel plans long before planning to fly. Not making your flight will cost you time and money. Make sure your dog gets used to new places easily if you plan to travel together. Your dog needs to respond reliably to the leash and voice commands, and should always keep him on a leash during the trip and in public places. When traveling, you can ensure the safety of your pet by having control of its activities at all times.

TIP! If you are packing for a cruise, do not buy anything new for the trip. This is because most of today's cruises will allow you to stay in casual clothes even for dinner, and almost never require you to dress in formal black tie clothes.

Pack light and be sure to plan your trip when you travel. A lightweight and intelligent packing job will make any trip easier and more enjoyable. A desert contains many interesting places to watch, as well as animals that most people never see in their lives. A visit to the desert is an impressive event, especially for those who have never done one before, and it is something not to be missed. Be careful with food allergies when visiting a foreign country to avoid dangerous links. Learn enough about the foreign language to understand if something can be dangerous for you. In this way, you can easily explain your allergies to waiters or chefs in restaurants or, in case something happens, to medical professionals.

TIP! If you are planning a long cruise, consider selecting a cruise line that offers self-service laundry. This will reduce the amount of clothing you need to wear when packing, and it is also significantly cheaper than asking the ship's crew to wash the clothes for you.

If you want the cheapest exchange rates, wait to change your currency until you reach the destination. If you know there will not be a place to easily change the currency once you land in your destination country, change a limited amount before leaving and then look for a better exchange rate once you arrive in the country. The reason for some of the worst travel stories is because the traveler did not think about the future and planned correctly. With the information you have obtained in this article, you may now enjoy your vacation without stress.

You should try the vacation home rentals in California!

California is much more than just another option for an ordinary vacation. In the minds of many people, it is a tourist destination that people even put in the category of paradise and it is the kind of place they want to go to relax during their vacations. One of the best ways to really achieve that feeling of "going to paradise" is to consider renting vacation homes in California, to fully settle in the "paradise" experience. This option is much better than a hotel room.

While taking advantage of renting a vacation home might be the perfect way for your vacation travel plans to come together, there are some guidelines to keep in mind. First, depending on the exact destination in California and the time of year, there will be a variable availability of vacation homes that you can choose to rent.

With this in mind, reservations for vacation home rentals should be made as soon as possible. This will help ensure that you have the best possible selection of holiday homes to choose from, so that you can find the one that best suits your needs. Unlike hotels that have many rooms available at any time, a vacation rental can only accommodate one party at a time.

As a result, renting a vacation home in a popular area is often reserved many months, and possibly even years in advance, especially during the high season of vacation trips. However, this does not mean that you will not be able to find a house to rent, as long as you leave additional time to plan.

In addition, it can be useful if you have some flexibility regarding the exact rental location of the holiday home in which you are interested. You may be able to broaden your search and find more available vacation rental homes, even though it could be an additional five or ten miles from your ideal location.

Many owners who rent these private homes are careful to provide as much information as possible about their rental property through an online site. This allows potential guests of their vacation rentals to have a clear idea of ​​the type of services they will enjoy and also many details about the surrounding area. With this information, travelers can make an informed decision, among the selection of available rental houses.

A vacation home rental in California will include many different types of properties, such as private villas, single family homes, condos, cabins and cabins. In most cases, these various houses are available at tremendous value, compared to the typical hotel accommodation. In many cases, you can even negotiate with the owner if you are planning a long visit.

When there is some kind of special occasion or unique event, the rental of holiday homes can be the right place to meet specific needs. They are a good option for corporations that have a special meeting or retreat to organize.

Family vacations are often quieter when staying in holiday homes rather than a group of hotel rooms. And many times, new boyfriends appreciate the additional privacy this option offers for their honeymoon.

Hidden Gems in Southern California

Many tourists flock to known destinations in southern California such as San Diego, Disneyland, Los Angeles and Santa Barbara. These are all great places to visit, but if you are looking for a different place that is slightly off the radar, check out the following amazing destinations:

The Channell Islands

My husband and I have lived in California for most of our lives, but somehow we miss these spectacular islands that are classified as one of the US National Parks. UU. After seeing some awesome photos on the Internet, we took a short boat trip to Anacapa Island from Oxnard as part of a weekend anniversary trip.

If you decide to go, get ready and bring supplies. This trip is for adventurous people in good physical shape. You will have to climb 157 stairs to the top of this small rugged island where there is no food, services, water or toilets. Now, I HATE the dependencies, but I'm telling you: the views of the rocky coast, the massive cliffs and the irregular peaks were worth it. You can easily walk along the edge of the island in just hours with Inspiration Point, a great reward for your efforts.

We visited in June when bursts of bright wildflowers covered the small island and thousands of adorable seagulls were in each corner. Just be careful with your protective mothers who will throw themselves in your head if you get too close.

We returned a couple of years later and visited the largest island in Santa Cruz for an exciting kayaking tour of the historic sea caves. On the boat ride we saw a whale and two large dolphin banks. The waters can be agitated at certain points, but the caves were incredible. This was a once in a lifetime experience.

Some people consider these islands desolate, but if you have an adventurous spirit and love nature, the Channell Islands are considered the Galapagos of North America.

The botanical gardens of Huntington

This is another awesome place that we couldn't visit for decades. Located in Pasadena, the magnificent estate houses more than a dozen spectacular gardens spread across 120 acres. It's hard to say which garden is the most dazzling, but the Japanese garden, the rose garden and the California garden are some of my favorites.

We didn't even have the opportunity to visit the art galleries. The Huntington Art Gallery houses British paintings, sculptures and decorative arts of the 18th and 19th centuries and includes the famous Blue Boy. And to my shame as a writer, we didn't visit the Huntington Library, one of the largest and most complete research libraries in the United States.

Next time.

Ventura County Wine Route

Napa can get all the attention as a wine country in California, but my husband and I enjoy savoring our way through the coastal hills near the coastal city of Ventura. We visited two of the almost 20 wineries and tasting rooms.

You can book one of the many wine tours on offer. However, we decided to get a map and explore on our own. Starting at Ventura at the junction of Highway 1 and Highway 101, we drove along Highway 33 towards Ojai.

Surprises await you on this somewhat lonely but charming road, from the "smallest Post Office in the USA." Until the last place where someone saw James Dean alive. Our favorite find was Old Creek Winery, which seemed to return to a simpler place and time, where friendly people and dogs welcomed us. We enjoyed our bottle of purchased wine and a picnic outside at the tables enjoying the American view.

By the way, both Ojai and Ventura are worthwhile stops with lovely inns, luxury spas and bed and breakfast along with a wide range of outdoor activities. During summer time, Ventura Harbor Village is an activity center with festivals and live music on weekends.

Laguna Beach

This charming beach town is located halfway between Los Angeles and San Diego. With more than 20 different scenic coves, this beach area offers everything from surfing, paddle surfing, snorkeling, kayaking and whale watching excursions.

Just be careful, surfing can be hard in some places. When I was a teenager, I decided to surf despite the rough waters and erased a massive wave (think of the Beach Boys song: Heheheheheheee wipe oooout!). Actually, I blame the Beach Boys for all this mishap since they went and romanticized this whole surfer thing with songs in which I grew up as Surfer Girl. So your fault.

However, the landscape cannot be better. Add ultra stylish restaurants and shops and unique art galleries and you will get the picture. There is even a Baby Boomer Club with dancing on Saturday nights. Every summer they organize the Woodstock Lagoon, where baby boomers celebrate as in 1969.

Heisler Park is a good place to start, located just north of the main beach, with an easy half-mile walk along a paved road with spectacular views of the coast and the soft sound of breaking waves. You can take one of the paths to the beaches and tidal pools. Benches, picnic tables and barbecues abound where you can enjoy the magnificent views. My husband and I had a picnic in one of the grassy areas and it was perfect!

Treasure Island Park is another great place, located on the grounds of the five-star Montage Laguna Beach, where the truly wealthy are staying. Exquisitely landscaped, several observation benches line the winding road that is easy to walk. Stairs and ramps lead you to the beach, where you can walk through a beautiful rock arch at low tide, find a place in the sand for sunbathing and a large tidal pool. In addition, there are many lawn areas for picnics. I would suggest bringing some wine and cheese to enjoy a romantic sunset.

Big bear lake

I live in the desert, so near Big Bear is a great mountain getaway with its beautiful lake and virgin forests. Boating, fishing and hiking are just some of the activities in this small and quiet town.

Last summer, my husband and I toured the lake by bike, enjoyed a picnic, went down an alpine slide, drove go-karts with speeds of up to 30 mph and took a ride in the scenic sky chair to enjoy the views incredible. After watching people take the ski lifts to ride a mountain bike on the trails, we put this on our to-do list for next time.

For the adventurous at heart, parasailing and zip lines are also available.

El Matador Beach

Looking for a spectacular coastline with white sands, cliffs, breaking waves and steep rock formations in a semi-hidden place?

Look no further, El Matador, located north of Malibu, along the winding Pacific Coast Highway. It's easy to overlook the small brown sign that points to the small parking lot at the beginning of the trail, so watch carefully between Broad Beach and Decker Canyon Roads. Once you find it, prepare to go down a 150-foot cliff with the help of steep stairs.

It is not for young children or for those with physical disabilities, but if you can go down the steps, you will be treated with stunning views. The locals know this beach and they may see some photo shoots, we did it!

There is very little to do in this small but glorious stretch of beach, so bring a picnic lunch or some wine and find a hidden corner to enjoy an incredibly romantic setting.

Redondo Beach

By now, you have probably noticed that my husband and I are beach bums. We found this beach by accident while we searched for a nearby place to spend the night before flying from LAX the next morning.

The Redondo Pier is a landmark with panoramic ocean views and water activities that include harbor cruises, seasonal whale watching, kayaks, rowing boards and pedal boats. In fact, we didn't try any of these, but we loved Tony's views on the pier where we enjoyed the happy hour.

The pier also houses a great 16-foot white shark affectionately known as Georgette, which is displayed in a large Shark Attack tank on the pier. If you have grandchildren with you or are young at heart, you can enjoy the semi-submersible yellow submarine (damn it, now I have the Beatles song in my head) to see the local marine life underwater.

Insurance is better than staying at an airport hotel if you fly to or from Los Angeles.

Catalina Island

This island is better known than some of my previous recommendations, but it is a sentimental favorite. My husband and I spent our honeymoon there 40 years ago and have returned several times. This is a small and picturesque island, with no traffic lights or fast food restaurants. A typical traffic jam involves two golf carts and a bicycle built for two.

On our honeymoon, we happily ride bicycles around Avalon, ride horses, tour the famous casino and sunbathe on the small beach. We also took a bus to Two Harbors, the only other town on Catalina Island. Snorkeling, parasailing, fishing, glass bottom boating, paddleboarding, Segway tours, golf and hiking are other popular activities.

Decades later, we sailed our ship to the island from Long Beach, which turned out to be a wild journey. My husband and older children returned again for our open water dives to obtain diving certification amid the famous seaweed forests surrounded by the bright orange fish Garibaldi. The next time we visit, I want to try the new zip line that is 600 feet above sea level with a 1,100-foot long run with speeds of up to 30 mph Wheee!

As you can see, Southern California has so many excellent places to visit, it is impossible to list them all. But I hope he gave you some ideas to get you started!

Transcendent and fascinating travel memory

With Good morning Diego García: A journey of discovery (Travel – Book 2) , the talented author Susan Joyce recounts her additional memories, which began in The Lullaby Illusion: A Journey of Awakening (Travel – Volume 1) . The result is a fascinating book, which combines the genres of memories and travel books, recounting the author's subsequent adventures, when she and her husband, Charles, are invited by friends to travel on a yacht they are entering. To his maiden. travel, and travel to many exotic places. As in the first book, the author undergoes an internal journey of self-discovery, as well as experiencing the journey of his life, places that many people only dream of seeing.

Good morning Diego Garcia It begins with the narrator and Charles back in Ojai, California, after having spent a tumultuous time in Cyprus, experiencing the 1974 coup d'etat and the war there. The couple is settling in a house they have rented, with Charles waiting for his old job to call him back and let him know there is work available for him. They don't seem to be very worried about financial matters, since Charles has money saved in at least a couple of bank accounts so they can survive.

A transcendental letter arrives by mail, which changes the life of the narrator and her husband forever. The letter is from his friends, Mia and Dylan, who are currently in Taiwan. His friends are also friends of a Swedish millionaire, who owns several yachts and has bought a new one. The Swedish millionaire always has the yachts interrupted on his maiden voyages before traveling on them, and Mia and Dylan invite the narrator and Charles on the trip, to "help crew the yacht from Trincormalee, Sri Lanka to the Seychelles. Ocean, and north through the Suez Canal. "

They made plans to meet with Dylan and Mia in the port city of Trincomalee on the east coast of Sri Lanka. The name of the yacht they were traveling on was ZoZo.

Just to get to where the narrator and Charles finally met Dylan and Mia was an adventure in itself. They travel to Mumbai, where Charles gets some hashish, and they stay in beautiful 5-star hotels, while they see the great disparity between rich and poor in Mumbai and India, when they have a hotel located near the Taj Mahal. .

The narrator points out in several places in Good Morning Diego García that he was keeping a diary of his travels. She must have been thorough since the descriptions of the people they know and the sights they see are beautifully described, which makes the narrator's adventures very real to the readers of her books.

Although the narrator and her husband had never manned a yacht before, at first they are delighted with the possibility of traveling on a yacht to various destinations around the Indian Ocean. However, they discover that the trip will take place during the monsoon season, and their trip will not be as pleasant as they had planned.

Along with her travels, the narrator recounts her fascination with Edgar Cayce's books and the importance of dreams for him and herself. He also asks philosophical questions, sometimes, for example, wondering why cows in India are considered sacred, but not human.

That's all before they even meet Dylan and Mia, and begin a journey that will take them to destinations such as the Seychelles and Diego Garcia Island, a volcanic atoll in the Indian Ocean that is the largest of the 60 small islands that they understand the Chagos archipelago, before they finally return to India and then head to Brussels, Belguim, in 1976.

Good morning Diego García: A journey of discovery (Travel – Book 2), It is an extremely well written story about the narrator's trips to exotic places, as well as being a story of his emotional and spiritual growth as a person. It is a must read for anyone who loves to read captivating and fascinating travel memories, and especially for fans of the first book by the author of the series, The Lullaby Illusion: A Journey of Awakening (Travel – Volume 1).

Air ambulance response times: factors that alter the speed and quality of services

There are many people who will use their private financial resources or medical insurance coverage for air ambulance services. When you are thinking of doing this, it is always a good idea to first find out what factors can influence the speed of an air ambulance rescue.

When you know what can affect response times, it will be much easier to choose the rescue service that best saves your life. There are 3 key factors that will affect response times:

  • company infrastructure
  • ease of communication
  • important travel documents

One of the most important things you would need to know when you are in that position is the type of infrastructure that the company has . For example, you will realize that companies that have many air ambulances stationed in a particular region will be more effective in this type of work. This means that if you need an air rescue service that you can use wherever you are, you would need to try to find such a company. In this way, you will be guaranteed a timely rescue when you need it.

Another problem that may affect the response times of this service is how easy it is to communicate with the company in question. For example, when you have an accident, you should try to find a way to notify service providers so they can rescue you. There are many things you can do to facilitate faster communication so that you are not compromised. The easiest of them is to make sure you have the contact details of the company, such as having them stored on your phone.

In some cases, you will also find that have travel documents That will show that you are a member of such rescue service will also increase the likelihood of being rescued faster. This is because when you have an accident, other spectators may decide to call the number of the company in question if you cannot do so. This means that when you receive air rescue services, you should seriously think about using some of the adhesive labels that are generally delivered to customers. Hitting one in your car may interfere a little with your appearance, but it could be the only thing that saves your life when you have an accident.

In summary, the factors that influence the speed of response of said service can arise both from the client side and from the service provider side. If you are thinking of subscribing to this type of service and need to get the best response times, it would be a good idea to subscribe first to the most reliable company for your needs, and then also make sure you do all the things mentioned above to increase the speed of their response. Some of the problems mentioned above may seem very obvious, but it is very common to find many subscribers who do not pay attention to them. Doing this will generally decrease the response speed of that company, even if you subscribe to one of the best.